Mr Laurence Watkins

Mr Laurence WatkinsTel: 020 3448 4158
Fax: 020 3448 3340

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery


Professional background

Consultant Neurosurgeon & Clinical Senior Lecturer (as above) 1999 onwards
Senior Registrar at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1995 to 1999  MRC Research Fellowship at Institute of Neurology 1992-1995

Registrar at Atkinson Morley's/Queen Square/Great Ormond Street 1989-1992

Westminster Rotation for general/orthopaedic training 1987-1989

Demonstrator in anatomy and junior posts in Cambridge 1984-1986

Surgical Practice

Consultant Neurosurgeon at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery performing general neurosurgery, with sub-speciality interests in hydrocephalus, neurovascular surgery, intracranial pressure, chronic headache, neuro-endoscopy and cerebral trauma. Member of the multidisciplinary team for the Acute Brain Injury Service and the Neurovascular Group.


Programme Director for the North London Neurosurgical Training Rotation (the largest neurosurgical training programme in the U.K.) and Liaison with the South London Neurosurgical Training Committee.

Regular lectures to undergraduates as part of their neurosciences attachment. Frequent lectures to nurses and therapists, and outreach teaching sessions at our 7 core referring hospitals. Regular lecturer on MSc course and MSc/PhD project supervisor at the Institute of Neurology.


Regional Specialty Professional Adviser for the Royal College of Surgeons.

Consultant Liaison for the Society of British Neurological Surgeons.

Other Activities

Working group of the International Headache Society which developed the latest edition of the IHS diagnostic criteria (Non-vascular intracranial causes of headache). Chairman, H-C Diener.


Book Chapters

Watkins L, Thomas DGT. Traumatic injuries to the head. In: Oxford Textbook of Medicine 5th Edition (Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. Eds). Oxford University Press 2010. 24.10.3: 4963-4967

Elwell V, Watkins L. Consent in Neurosurgery. In: Consent in Surgery – a practical guide (Khundar R, De Silva S, Chowdhury R. Eds). Radcliffe Publishing 2010. 5: 49-62

Watkins LD. Raised intracranial pressure. In: Clinical Neurology. (Scadding JW, Fowler, T. Eds). Hodder 2003. 18: 362-382

Journal Articles


Shand Smith JD, Toma AK, Watkins LD, Kitchen ND. Secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus in a patient with isolated frontal dilatation – an insight into pathophysiology? Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2011 Nov 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Pullen E, Chapman MD, Petzold A, Cipolotti L, Kitchen ND, Keir G, Lemieux L, Watkins LD. Cognitive, biochemical and imaging profile of patients suffering from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Alzheimers Dement. 2011 Sep;7(5):501-8

Toma AK, Stapleton S, Papadopoulos MC, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Natural history of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurg Rev. 2011 Oct;34(4):433-9

Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Chapman MD, Keir G, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Use of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and total tau protein to predict favorable surgical outcomes in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. . J Neurosurg. 2011 Jul;115(1):145-50

Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Watkins LD, Kitchen ND. Is there a difference in outcomes of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with the choice of cerebrospinal fluid diversion site: A single centre experience. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011 Jul;113(6):477-9

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Use of proGAV® shunt valve in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 2011 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Toma AK, Holl E, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Evans' index revisited: the need for an alternative in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 2011 Apr;68(4):939-44

Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Chapman MD, Petzold A, Keir G, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Rostrocaudal dynamics of CSF biomarkers. Neurochem Res. 2011 Mar;36(3):528-32

Saper JR et al [See Collaborators]. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable chronic migraine headache: ONSTIM feasibility study. Cephalalgia. 2011 Feb;31(3):271-85

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Working towards patient oriented outcome assessment in normal pressure hydrocephalus, what is the most important? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 Jan;153(1):177-80


Toma AK, Dherijha M, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Use of lumboperitoneal shunts with the Strata NSC valve: a single-center experience. J Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;113(6):1304-8

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Investigating shunt function using continuous intracranial pressure monitoring in adults: single center experience. J Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;113(6):1326-30

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Continuous intracranial pressure monitoring in pseudotumour cerebri: Single centre experience. Br J Neurosurg. 2010 Oct;24(5):584-8

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Ventriculosinus shunt. Neurosurg Rev. 2010 Apr;33(2):147-52; discussion 153

Tailor J, Goetz P, Chandrashekar H, Stephen T, Schiariti M, Grieve J, Watkins L, Brew S, Robertson F, Kitchen N. Stability of ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with detachable coils: is delayed follow-up angiography warranted? Br J Neurosurg. 2010 Aug;24(4):405-9


Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Ongoing search for diagnostic biomarkers in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Biomarkers in Medicine 2009 Dec; 3 (6):787-805

Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Chapman MD, Petzold A, Kitchen ND, Keir G, Watkins LD.  The longitudinal profile of CSF markers during external lumbar drainage.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Oct;80(10):1130-3

Chinthapalli VK, Watkins LD. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tap. eMedicine from WebMD. Updated August 12, 2011. Available at:

Toma AK, Tarnaris A, Grieve JP, Watkins LD, Kitchen ND. Adjustable shunt valve-induced magnetic resonance imaging artifact: a comparative study. J Neurosurg. 2010 Jul;113(1):74-8

Toma AK, Camp S, Watkins LD, et al. External ventricular drain insertion accuracy: is there a need for change in practice? Neurosurgery 2009; 65:1197-1201

Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation in 14 patients. Neurology 2009 Jan 27;72(4):341-5

Tarnaris A, Kitchen ND, Watkins LD. Noninvasive biomarkers in normal pressure hydrocephalus: evidence for the role of neuroimaging. Journal of Neurosurgery 2009 May; 110(5):837-51

2008 and earlier

Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Treatment of hemicrania continua by occipital nerve stimulation with a bion device: long-term follow-up of a crossover study. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Nov;7(11):1001-12

Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Treatment of medically intractable cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation: long-term follow-up of 13 patients. Cephalalgia 2007; 27:1190

Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Successful treatment of medically intractable cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation. Lancet 2007; 369(9567):1099-106.

Frazer D, Ahuja A, Watkins L, Cipolotti L. Coiling versus clipping for the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a longitudinal investigation into cognitive outcome. Neurosurgery 2007;60(3):434-41; discussion 441-2

Tarnaris, A; Watkins, LD; Kitchen, ND. Biomarkers in chronic adult hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 2006, 3:11

Zrinzo,LU; Crocker, M; Zrinzo, LV; Thomas, DGT; Watkins, LD. Commercial flight and patients with intracranial mass lesions: a caveat. J Neurosurg 2006; 105:627–630.

Caesar B, Middleton PM, Watkins LD. Sudden onset of vomiting as a presentation of perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Eur J Emerg Med. 2005 Aug;12(4):185-7

Demetriades AK, Cox TC, Watkins LD. Hyperacute head injuries and the timing of computed tomography. J Trauma. 2004 Oct;57(4):925

Gnanalingham, KK; Watkins, L; Goadsby, PJ. 14 mmHg: a case of raised intracranial pressure?
British Journal of Neurosurgery 2004; 18(3):303-306.

Casimiro, MV; McEvoy, AW; Watkins, LD, et al. A comparison of risk factors in the etiology of mirror and nonmirror multiple intracranial aneurysms. Surgical Neurology 2004; 61(6):541-545.

Ibrahim A, Ashkan K, Smith M, Watkins L. Anticoagulation in a head injured patient. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2003; 96(12):591-2.

Atkin G, Watkins L, Rich P. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss complicating basal skull fracture. Br J Neurosurg. 2002 Dec;16(6):597-600.

Gnanalingham K, Taylor W, Watkins L. Dual technique for obliteration of small arteriovenous malformations. Br J Neurosurg. 2002 Aug;16(4):376-80.

Watkins LD. Nitric oxide and cerebral blood flow: an update. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev. 1995 Winter;7(4):324-337

Watkins LD, Mendoza N, Cheesman AD, Symon L. Glomus jugulare tumours: a review of 61 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994;130(1-4):66-70

Watkins LD, Hayward R, Andar U, Harkness W. The diagnosis of blocked cerebrospinal fluid shunts: a prospective study of referral to a paediatric neurosurgical unit. Childs Nerv Syst. 1994 Mar;10(2):87-90

Watkins L, Khudados ES, Kaleoglu M, Revesz T, Sacares P, Crockard HA. Skull base chordomas: a review of 38 patients. 1958-1988. Br J Neurosurg. 1993;7(3):241-8.

Watkins LD, Uttley D, Archer DJ, Wilkins P, Plowman N. Giant cell tumors of the sphenoid bone. Neurosurgery. 1992 Apr;30(4):576-581

Watkins LD, Bell BA, Marsh HT, Uttley D. A scale for neurosurgical audit. Br J Neurosurg. 1990;4(6):463-465

GMC/GDC number: 2887827