Prof David Holder

Prof David HolderTel: 020 3447 9046
Fax: 020 3447 9002

University College Hospital

Neurophysiology (clinical)

Professional background


1975     BA - Med Sci, Physiology/Biophysics, Cambridge                                            
1978     MBBS - Clinical Medicine, University College Hospital, London
1984     MA - Biophysics, University of California at Berkeley, USA
1991     PhD - Physiology, University College London

I have had a joint training in Clinical Medicine and Biophysics. As a young doctor, I became interested in developing a new method which could image fast electrical activity in the brain.

I have been Consultant in Clinical Neurophysiology at the Middlesex Hospital and UCH since 1997 where I undertake EEG reporting, nerve conduction studies and EMG (electromyography). The department is now in out-patients on the new main UCH site (P045, 1st floor podium).

On the academic side, I came up with a practical possible way to image fast neural activity in the brain during a Master’s degree at Berkeley in 1983 – the then new method of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). With an MRC training and then Royal Society University Research Fellowship held at University College London, I have built up an interdisciplinary research group which has pioneered the application of EIT for imaging brain function. This group has been in Medical Physics at UCL since 2005.

Research interests

Electrical Impedance Tomography of brain function. This is a new portable inexpensive imaging method with the potential to provide images in acute stroke, epileptic seizures and, uniquely, of fast neural activity during brain function.

Bioengineering developments applied to Clinical Neurophysiology:

  • Vibration studies for RSI (repetitive strain injury)
  • Using machine learning methods for automated analysis of the EEG
  • Optimal methods for thermal threshold testing for small fibre neuropathies
  • Use of Telemedicine for remote reporting in neurophysiology.


  • Fabrizi L, Sparkes M, Horesh L, Perez-Juste Abascal, McEwan A, Bayford RH, Elwes R, Binnie CD, Holder DS (2006). Factors limiting the application of electrical impedance tomography for identification of regional conductivity changes using scalp electrodes during epileptic seizures in humans. Physiol Meas 27, S163-S174.
  • Romsauerova A, McEwan A, Horesh L, Yerworth R, Bayford RH, Holder DS (2006). Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of the adult human head: initial findings in brain tumours, arteriovenous malformations and chronic stroke, development of an analysis method and calibration. Physiol Meas 27, S147-S161.
  • McEwan,A.; Romsauerova,A.; Yerworth,R.; Horesh,L.; Bayford,R.; Holder,D. (2006) Design and calibration of a compact multi-frequency EIT system for acute stroke imaging. Physiol Meas 27, S199-S210.
  • Abascal J-F PJ, Arridge SR, Atkinson D, Shindmes R, Fabrizi L, De Lucia M, Horesh L, Bayford RH, Holder DS (2008) Use of anisotropic modelling in Electrical Impedance Tomography; description of method and preliminary assessment of utility in imaging brain function in the adult human head NeuroImage 43, 258-68.
  • Gilad O and Holder DS (2009) Impedance changes recorded with scalp electrodes during visual evoked responses: implications for Electric Impedance Tomography of fast neural activity. NeuroImage 47, 412 - 522.
  • Malone E, Sato Dos Santos G, Holder D, Arridge S. (2015) A reconstruction-classification method for Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 34, 1486 – 1497.
  • Aristovich, K. Y., Packham, B. C., Koo, H., dos Santos, G. S., McEvoy, A., & Holder, D. S. (2016). Imaging fast electrical activity in the brain with electrical impedance tomography. NeuroImage, 124, 204-213. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.08.071
  • Dowrick T, Sato Dos Santos G, Vongerichten A, Holder D (2015) Parallel, multi frequency EIT measurement, suitable for recording impedance changes during epilepsy Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 6(1):37-43
  • Dowrick, T., Blochet, C., & Holder, D. (2016). In vivo bioimpedance changes during haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in rats: Towards 3D stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography. Physiological Measurement, 37(6), 765-784. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/37/6/765
  • Avery, J. P., Dowrick, T., Faulkner, A., Goren, N., & Holder, D. (2017). A Versatile and Reproducible Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System. Sensors. Sensors (Basel). 2017 Jan 31;17(2). pii: E280. doi: 10.3390/s17020280.
  • Faulkner, M., Hannan, S., Aristovich, K., Avery, J., & Holder, D. (2018). Feasibility of imaging evoked activity throughout the rat brain using electrical impedance tomography. NeuroImage, 178, 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.05.022
  • Witkowska-Wrobel, A., Aristovich, K., Faulkner, M., Avery, J., & Holder, D. (2018). Feasibility of imaging epileptic seizure onset with EIT and depth electrodes. NeuroImage, 173, 311-321. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.02.056
  • Goren N, Avery J, Dowrick T, Mackle E, Witkowska-Wrobel A, Werring D, Holder David (2018) Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography and neuroimaging data in stroke patients. Scientific Data 5, 180112.
  • Aristovich K, Donegá M, Blochet C, Avery J, Hannan S, Chew DJ, Holder D. (2018) Imaging fast neural traffic at fascicular level with electrical impedance tomography: proof of principle in rat sciatic nerve. J Neural Eng. 2018 Oct;15(5):056025. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aad78e. Epub 2018 Aug 2. PubMed PMID:30070261.
  • Tarotin I, Aristovich K, Holder D. Model of impedance changes in unmyelinated nerve fibres. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2018 Jun 20. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2018.2849220. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29993457.
  • Hannan, S, Faulkner, M., Aristovich, K., Avery, J., Walker, M., & Holder, D. (2018). Imaging fast electrical activity in the brain during ictal epileptiform discharges with electrical impedance tomography. Clinical, 20, 674-684. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.09.004.

GMC/GDC number: 2442028