Professional background

Professor Siow Ming Lee (Prof. Lee) is Professor of Medical Oncology at University College London (UCL), and Consultant Medical Oncologist at University College London Hospitals (UCLH).

He graduated from St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School, University of London in 1982, trained in internal medicine at the London teaching hospitals of St Mary’s, St Bartholomew’s and King’s College hospitals before completing his medical oncology fellowship training at Guy’s Hospital, London and Christie Hospital, Manchester.

He was awarded the Martin John Turner scholarship prize by his medical school, American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) UpJohn Award in 1993, McElwain Prize by The Association of Cancer Physician (ACP) for outstanding cancer research in 1994 and a PhD degree by University of Manchester in 1994.

Professor Lee is an internationally renowned authority on lung cancer treatment and research. He has designed and led several randomised NCRI lung cancer trials in the United Kingdom over the past two decades which have changed practice and improved treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients. His group established the routine use of gemcitabine/carboplatin chemotherapy to treat lung cancer, quoted in several cancer treatment guidelines.

His innovative trials with thalidomide as a cancer weapon and the smart drug erlotinib to treat poor performance lung cancer patients received widespread publicity including BBC ten O’clock news at launch. His research has also helped identify and validate prognostic and predictive markers for lung cancer outcomes. His ET trial was the first prospective biomarker chemotherapy trial with ERCC1 to select lung cancer patients for doublet chemotherapy and demonstrated that platinum is superior to non-platinum chemotherapy and should remain the standard of care.

His latest trials examine the role of atezolizumab (IPSOS) to treat poor performance non-small cell lung cancer and hydroxychloroquine (Study 15) for small cell lung cancer. His team was also part of the international FLAURA and KEYNOTE-189 Investigators that recently established osimertinib and chemotherapy-pembrolizumab combo as first-line therapy to treat EGFR mutant and wild-type lung cancer respectively. His trials have been recognised at major international conferences with many invited presidential, plenary and oral presentations at World Lung Cancer Conference, ASCO and ESMO and have resulted in several 1st or senior author publications in high impact journals. His lung cancer research contribution was part of the successful application by UCLH/UCL in 2006 to become one of the country’s NIHR BRC centres, and by UCL Cancer Institute to become a Cancer Research UK Centre in 2009 and a Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence in 2014. His practice-changing trials and 4* high impact research publications were used for the REF 2014 exercise which ranked UCL top for research in UK.

Professor Lee has also contributed to several practice-changing papers for other types of cancer (as first or last author) including:

  • First-in-human discovery in 1991 of the inactivation and regeneration of the first human DNA repair protein (MGMT/ATase) following chemotherapy and that its expression is highly heterogeneous in human cancer cells, which led to the new treatment strategy of blocking proteins involved in tumour DNA repair with small molecule inhibitors
  • Established 5-day dosing schedule of temozolomide as the standard chemotherapy treatment to treat high grade brain glioma including GBM, based on his previous discovery in 1994 that its anticancer activity is due to cumulative inactivation of the resistance MGMT DNA repair protein
  • Established the routine use of G-CSF after stem-cell transplantation in 1998 because of faster haematological recovery and shorter hospital stay
  • His dataset on advanced Hodgkin lymphoma contributed to the International Hodgkin Prognostic Score, after his group conducted the first analysis in 1997 to show that it is not possible to identify a poor risk group to warrant stem-cell transplantation after standard chemotherapy.

He has published over 150 peer-reviewed papers, abstracts and book chapters, many as first or senior author in several high-impact journals including Cancer Research, JCO, JNCI, Lancet, Lancet Oncology, Nature, NEJM & Science.

Professor Lee currently chairs the London Lung Cancer Group, which has a longstanding international research reputation and is clinical lead of the thoracic medical oncology unit at UCLH. He, with Professors Boshoff & Swanton, oversaw the strategic link with Manchester which resulted in the successful application by UCL Cancer Institute, and Manchester to become the first and only Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence in 2014.

He was previously a chairperson for the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) lung cancer advanced disease subgroup, NCRI brain new-agents clinical subgroup and previous committee member of CTACC, NCRI Lung, NCRI Brain and NCRI lymphoma groups.

He sits on several national and international executive cancer committees, and is Cancers 2015 & 2018 special issue editor for non-small cell lung cancer, manuscripts peer reviewer for many research journals, a grant reviewer for several cancer research organisations, scientific expert reviewer for many cancer research leadership awards and professorial appointments, member of a number of international cancer societies & expert advisor for NIHR HTA on CT lung cancer screening programme, NIHR HSRIC, NICE, MHRA & CHM Oncology and Haematology EAG on new cancer drugs.



  • Moore DA, Benafif S, Poskitt B, Argue S, Lee SM, Ahmad T, Papadatos-Pastos D, Jamal-Hanjani M, Bennett P, Forster MD. Optimising fusion detection through sequential DNA and RNA molecular profiling of non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2021 Nov;161:55-59. Epub 2021 Aug 25.Link
  • Bentham R et al. TRACERx Consortium. Using DNA sequencing data to quantify T cell fraction and therapy response. Nature 2021 Sep;597(7877):555-560. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03894-5. Epub 2021 Sep 8. Link
  • Litchfield et al.. PEACE Consortium. Representative Sequencing: Unbiased Sampling of Solid Tumor Tissue. Cell Rep. 2020 May 5;31(5):107550. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107550. Link
  • TRACERx. Special Nature edition. 27 May 2020. Link
  • Lee LYW, Cazier J-P, Starkey T, et al. COVID-19 incidence and mortality and the effect of primary tumour subtype and patient demographics: a prospective cancer cohort study (UKCCMP). Lancet Oncol. 2020 Oct; 21(10): 1309–1316. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30442-3. Link
  • AbdulJabbar K, Raza SEA, Rosenthal R, et al. Geospatial immune variability illuminates differential evolution of lung adenocarcinoma. Nat Med. 2020 Jul;26(7):1054-1062. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0900-x. Epub 2020 May 27.Nat Med. 2020. PMID: 32461698. Link
  • Litchfield K, Stanislaw S, Spain L, et al. Representative Sequencing: Unbiased Sampling of Solid Tumor Tissue. Cell Rep. 2020 May 5;31(5):107550. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107550. Cell Rep. 2020. PMID: 32375028. Link
  • Middleton G, Brock K, Savage J, Mant R, Summers Y, Connibear J, Shah R, Ottensmeier C, Shaw P, Lee SM, Popat S, Barrie C, Barone G, Billingham L. Pembrolizumab in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer of performance status 2 (PePS2): a single arm, phase 2 trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Mar 19:S2213-2600(20)30033-3. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30033-3. Link
  • López S, Lim EL, Horswell S, et al. Interplay between whole-genome doubling and the accumulation of deleterious alterations in cancer evolution. Nat Genet. 2020 Mar;52(3):283-293. doi: 10.1038/s41588-020-0584-7. Epub 2020 Mar 5.Nat Genet. 2020. PMID: 32139907. Link
  • Ramalingam SS, Vansteenkiste J, Planchard D, et al. Overall Survival with Osimertinib in Untreated, EGFR-Mutated Advanced NSCLC. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 2;382(1):41-50. doi:10.1056/ NEJMoa1913662. Epub 2019 Nov 21. Link
  • Joshi K, de Massy MR, Ismail M, et al. Spatial heterogeneity of the T cell receptor repertoire reflects the mutational landscape in lung cancer. Nat Med. 2019 Oct;25(10):1549-1559. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0592-2. Epub 2019 Oct 7. Link
  • Biswas D, Birkbak NJ, Rosenthal R, et al. A clonal expression biomarker associates with lung cancer mortality. Nat Med. 2019 Oct;25(10):1540-1548. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0595-z. Epub 2019 Oct 7. Link
  • Chemi F, Rothwell DG, McGranahan N, et al. Pulmonary venous circulating tumor cell dissemination before tumor resection and disease relapse. Nat Med. 2019 Oct;25(10):1534-1539. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0593-1. Epub 2019 Oct 7. Link
  • Lee SM, Upadhyay S, Lewanski C, Falk S, Skailes G, Woll PJ, Hatton M, Lal R, Jones R, Toy E, Rudd R, Ngai Y, Edwards A, Hackshaw A. The clinical role of VeriStrat testing in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer considered unfit for first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. European Journal of Cancer. 2019. 2019 Oct;120:86-96. Link
  • Lam JM, Lee LYW, Starkey T, Simms V, Lee SM. Commentary on Mascaux et al., Immune evasion before tumour invasion in early lung squamous carcinogenesis. Nature. 2019:571:570-5. Med One. 2019;4: e190020. Link
  • Rosenthal R, Cadieux EL, Salgado R, et al. Neoantigen-directed immune escape in lung cancer evolution. Nature. 2019 Mar;567(7749):479-485. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1032-7. Epub 2019 Mar 20. Link
  • Lee LYW, Mohammad S, Starkey T, Lee SM. STAT3 cyclic oligonucleotide decoy-a new therapeutic avenue for NSCLC? Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2018 Dec;7(Suppl 4): S381-S384. doi: 10.21037/tlcr.2018.09.14. Link
  • Forster M, Hackshaw A, De Pas T, Cobo M, Garrido P, Summers Y, Dingemans AC, Flynn M, Schnell D, von Wangenheim U, Loembé AB, Kaiser R, Lee SM. A phase I study of nintedanib combined with cisplatin/gemcitabine as first-line therapy for advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (LUME-Lung 3). Lung Cancer. 2018 Jun; 120:27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 Mar 9. Link
  • Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, .& KEYNOTE-189 Investigators. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 31;378(22):2078-2092. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1801005. Epub 2018 Apr 16. Link
  • Arce Vargas F, Furness AJS, Litchfield K, Joshi K, Rosenthal R, Ghorani E, Solomon I, Lesko MH, Ruef N, Roddie C, Henry JY, Spain L, Ben Aissa A, Georgiou A, Wong YNS, Smith M, Strauss D, Hayes A, Nicol D, O'Brien T, Mårtensson L, Ljungars A, Teige I, Frendéus B; TRACERx Melanoma; TRACERx Renal; TRACERx Lung consortia, Pule M, Marafioti T, Gore M, Larkin J, Turajlic S, Swanton C, Peggs KS, Quezada SA. Fc Effector Function Contributes to the Activity of Human Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies. Cancer Cell. 2018 Apr 9;33(4):649-663.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ccell.2018.02.010. Epub 2018 Mar 22. Link
  • Abbosh C, Birkbak NJ, Wilson GA, Jamal-Hanjani M, et al. Corrigendum: Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution. Nature. 2018 Feb 8;554(7691):264. doi:10.1038/nature25161. Epub 2017 Dec 20. Link
  • Soria JC, Ohe Y, Vansteenkiste, T Reungwetwattana, Chewaskuyong B, Lee KH, dechapunkul A, Imamura F, Nogami N, Kurata T, Okamoto I, Zhou C, Cho BC, Cheng Y, Cho EK, Voon PJ, Planchard D, Su WC, Gray JE, Lee SM, Hodge R, Marotti M, Rukazenkov Y, Ramalingam SS. Osimertinib in treatment-naïve EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 11;378(2):113-125 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1713137. Epub 2017 Nov 18. Link
  • Ulahannan D, Khalifa J, Faivre-Finn C, Lee SM. Emerging treatment paradigms for brain metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer: an overview of the current landscape and challenges ahead. Ann Oncol. 2017 Dec 1;28(12):2923-2931. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdx481. Link
  • McGranahan N, Rosenthal R, Hiley CT, et al. Allele-specific HLA loss and immune escape in lung cancer evolution. Cell. 2017 Nov 30;171(6):1259-1271.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.10.001. Link
  • Abbosh C, Birkbak NJ, Wilson G, et al. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution. Nature. 2017 Apr 26;545(7655):446-451. doi:10.1038/nature22364. Link
  • Jamal-Hanjani M, Wilson G, McGranahan N, et al. Tracking the evolution of non-small cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 1;376(22):2109-2121. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1616288. Epub 2017 Apr 26. Link
  • Arce Vargas F, Furness AJS, Solomon I, et al. Fc-optimised anti-CD25 depletes tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells and synergises with PD-1 blockade to eradicate established tumors. Immunity. 2017 Apr 18;46(4):577-586. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2017.03.013. Epub 2017 Apr 11. Link
  • Lee SM, Falzon M, Blackhall F, Spicer J, Nicolson M, Chaudhuri A, Middleton G, Ahmed S, Hicks J, Crosse B, Napier M, Singer J, Ferry D, Lewanski C, Forster M, Rolls SA, Capitanio A, Rudd R, Iles N, Ngar Y, Gandy M, Lillywhite R, Hackshaw A. Randomised prospective biomarker trial of ERCC1 for comparing platinum and non-platinum therapy, in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (ERCC1 Trial [ET]). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 Feb;35(4):402-41. Doi:10. 1200/JCO.2016.68.1841. Epub 2016 Nov 28. Link
  • Ulahannan D, Lee SM. Erlotinib plus concurrent whole-brain radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancers patients with multiple brain metastases. Transl Lung Cancer Res 2016 Apr; 5(2):208-211 doi:10.2.21037/tlcr.2016.03.06. Link
  • Zer A, Ding K, Lee SM, Goss G, Seymour L, Ellis PM, Bradbury P, Han L, Hackshaw A, O’Callaghan C, Tsao MS, Shepherd FA. Pooled analysis of the prognostic and predictive value of KRAS mutation status and mutation subtype in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. J Thorac Oncol 2016 Mar;11(3):312-23. Link
  • Khan I, Morris S, Hackshaw A, Lee SM. Cost-effectiveness of first line erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer unsuitable for chemotherapy. BMJ. 2015 Jul 2;5(7): e006733. Link
  • Jamal-Hanjani M & Lee SM. Ask the Experts: Update of managing non-small-cell lung cancer with acquired resistance to EGFR and ALK inhibitors. Lung Cancer Management. 2015 Jul;4(3):117-123. Link
  • de Bruin EC, McGranahan N, Mitter R, et al. Spatial and temporal diversity in genomic instability processes defines lung cancer evolution. Science. 2014 Oct 10;346(6206):251-6. Doi:10.1126/science. Link
  • Lee SM, Lewanski CR, Counsell N, Ottensmeier C, Bates A, Patel N, Wadsworth C, Ngai Y, Hackshaw A, Faivre-Finn C. Randomised trial of erlotinib plus whole brain radiotherapy for NSCLC patients with multiple brain metastases. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Jul 16;106(7). doi:10.1093/jnci/dju151. Link
  • Jamal-Hanjani M et al. Tracking genomic cancer evolution for precision medicine: the lung TRACERx study. PLoS Biol. 2014 Jul 8;12(7): e1001906. Link
  • Gupta RK, Marks M, Edwards SG, Smith K, Fletcher K, Lee SM, Ramsay A, Copas AJ, Miller RF (2014). A declining CD4 count and diagnosis of HIV-associated Hodgkin’s lymphoma: do prior clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities aid diagnosis? PLoS One, 2014 Feb 4:9(2): e87442. Link
  • Lee SM, Hackshaw. A potential new enriching trial design for selecting non-small-cell lung cancer patients with no predictive biomarker for trials based on both histology and early tumor response: further analysis of a thalidomide trial. Cancer Medicine. 2013 Jun; 2(3):360-366. Link
  • Lee CK, Brown C, Gralla RJ, Hirsh V, Thongprasert S, Tsai CM, Tan EH, Ho JC, Chu DT, Zaatar A, Sanchez JAO, Vu VV, Au JSK, Inoue A, Lee SM, Gebski V, Yang JCH (2013). Impact of EGFR inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer on progression-free and overall survival: a meta-analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2013 105(9):595-605. Link
  • King J, Lee SM. Axitinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2013 22(6):765-73. Link
  • Lee SM, King J (2013). Managing non-small-cell lung cancer with acquired resistance to EGF receptor and ALK inhibitors. Lung Cancer Management, 2(1),23-26. Link
  • Kassam S, Bower M, Lee SM, De Vos J, Fields P, Gandhi S, Nelson M, Montoto S, Tenant-Flowers M, Burns F, Marcus R, Edward SG, Cwynarski K (2013). A retrospective, multi-center analysis of treatment intensification for human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma, 54(9):1921-7. Link
  • Lee SM, Khan I, Upadhyay S, Lewanski C, Falk S, Skailes G, Marshall E, Woll PJ, Hatton M, Lal R, Jones R, Toy E, Chao D, Middleton G, Bulley S, Ngai Y, Rudd R, Hackshaw A, Boshoff C (2012). Erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer unsuitable for chemotherapy. Lancet Oncology Nov;13(11):1161-1170. Link
  • Jitlal M, Khan I, Lee SM, Hackshaw A (2012). Stopping clinical trials early for futility: retrospective analysis of several randomised clinical studies. British Journal of Cancer Sep 4;107(6):910-7. Link
  • Tin AW, Young RJ, Brown NJ, Jitlal M, Lee SM, Woll PJ (2012). Analysis of serum angiogenic biomarkers from patients in two phase III trials in lung cancer of chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and thalidomide. British Journal of Cancer 106:1153-1159. Link
  • Mankia SK. Miller RF, Edwards SG, Ramsay A, Lee SM (2012). The response of HIV-associated lymphadenopathic Kaposi sarcoma to highly active antiretroviral therapy evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT Clinical Nuclear Medicine 37(7):692-693. Link
  • Rossi A, Di Maio M, Chiodini P, Rudd R, Okamoto H, Skarlos DV, Früh M, Qian W, Tamura T, Samantas E, Shibata T, Perrone F, Gallo C, Gridelli C, Martelli O, Lee SM (2012). Carboplatin- or cisplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of small-cell lung cancer. The COCIS meta-analysis of individual patient data. Journal of Clinical Oncology 30(14):1692-8. Epub 2012 Apr 2. Link
  • Mankia SK, Miller RF, Edwards SG, Ramsay A, Lee SM (2012). Highly active antiretroviral therapy alone is an effective treatment for lymphadenopathic Kaposi sarcoma demonstrated by a clinical and F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography response. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) May;24(4): 309-31. Link
  • Johnson RJ, Davies A, Lee SM, Gilson D, Smith P, Qian W, Braganca N, El-mehidi N, Johnson P (2012).A phase 1 trial of escalating high dose methotrexate supported by glucarpidase to treat patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Blood 120:4850. Link
  • Stahel R, Thatcher N, Früh M, et al (2011). 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer: Lugano 2010: small cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 22(9):1973-80. Epub 2011 Jul 4. Link
  • Felip E, Gridelli C, Baas P, et al (2011). Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010. Ann Oncol. 22(7):1507-19. Epub 2011 May 2. Link
  • Patterson DM, Aries J, Hyare H, Holder D, Rees J, Lee SM (2011). Nonconvulsive status epilepticus and leucoencephalopathy after high-dose methotrexate. Journal of Clinical Oncology 29(16): e459-61. Epub 2011 Mar 21. Link
  • Lee SM, Edwards SG, Chilton DN, Ramsay A, Miller RF (2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy alone may be an effective treatment for HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Haematologica 95(11):1979-81. Epub 2010 Aug 26. Link
  • Brada M, Stenning S, Gabe R, Thompson LC, Levy D, Rampling R, Erridge S, Saran F, Gattamaneni R, Hopkins K, Beall S, Collins P, Lee SM (2010). Temozolomide versus Procarbazine, CCNU and Vincristine (PCV) in recurrent high-grade Glioma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 28(30):4601-8. Epub 2010 Sep 20. Link
  • Wheatley-Price P, Blackhall F, Lee SM, Ma C, Ashcroft L, Jitlal M, Qian W, Hackshaw A, Rudd R, Booton R, Danson S, Lorigan P, Thatcher N, Shepherd FA (2010). The influence of sex and histology on outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer: Pooled analysis of 5 randomized trials. Annals of Oncology Oct;21(10):2023-8. Epub 2010 Mar 23. Link
  • Lee SM, Bass P, Wakelee H (2010). Anti-angiogenesis drugs in lung cancer. Respirology 15(3), 387-392. Epud 2010 Mar 19. Link
  • Patterson DM, Lee SM (2010). Glucarpidase following high-dose methotrexate: update on development. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 10(1), 105-111. Link
  • Cave J, Edwards SG, Miller RF, Ardeshna KM, Lee SM (2009). Should we implement 'opt-out' HIV testing for patients with lymphoma? Clinical Medicine 9(4), 320-322. Link
  • Lee SM, James LE, Qian W, Spiro S, Eisen T, Gower NH, Ferry DR, Gilligan D, Harper PG, Prendiville J, Hocking M, Rudd RM (2009). Comparison of gemcitabine and carboplatin versus cisplatin and etoposide for patients with poor-prognosis small cell lung cancer. Thorax 64(1), 75-80. Link
  • Lee SM, Rudd R, Woll PJ, Ottensmeier C, Gilligan D, Price A, Spiro S, Gower N, Jitlal M, Hackshaw A (2009). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thalidomide in combination with gemcitabine and carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 27(31), 5248-5254. Link
  • Lee SM, Woll PJ, Rudd R, Ferry D, O'Brien M, Middleton G, Spiro S, James L, Ali K, Jitlal M, Hackshaw A (2009). Anti-angiogenic therapy using thalidomide combined with chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101(15), 1049-1057. Link
  • Muers MF, Stephens RJ, Fisher P, et al. Active symptom control with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MS01): a multicentre randomisd trial. Lancet. 2008 May 17;371(9625):1685-94. Link
  • Buchler T, Dubash S, Lee V, Chilton D, Cartledge J, Isaacson P, Tedder RS, Lee SM (2008). Rituximab failure in fulminant multicentric HIV/human herpesvirus 8-associated Castleman’s disease with multiorgan failure: report of two cases. AIDS 22(13), 1685-1687. Link
  • Cassoni A, Ali U, Cave J, Edwards SG, Ramsay A, Miller RF, Lee SM (2008). Remission after radiotherapy for a patient with chemo-refractory HIV-associated primary effusion lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 26(32), 5297-5299. Link
  • Lee SM, Buchler T, Bomanji J, Ramsay A, Edwards SG (2008). Thymic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography scanning after doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine and dacarbazine chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-associated Hodgkin's disease in an adult. AIDS 22(1), 159-160. Link
  • Lee SM, Buchler T, Grant H, Lai C (2008). Bilateral eardrum perforation after long-term treatment with erlotinib. Journal of Clinical Oncology 26(15), 2582-2584. Link
  • Lee SM, James L, Buchler T, Snee M, Ellis P, Hackshaw A (2008). Phase II trial of thalidomide with chemotherapy and as maintenance therapy for patients with poor prognosis small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 59(3), 364-368. Link
  • Buchler T, Bomanji J, Lee SM (2007). FDG-PET in bleomycin-induced pneumonitis following ABVD chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease-a useful tool for monitoring pulmonary toxicity and disease activity. Haematologica 92(11), e120-e121. Link
  • Lai P, Bomanji JB, Mahmood S, Nagabhushan N, Syed R, Gacinovic S, Lee SM, Ell PJ. (2007). Detection of tumour thrombus by F-18-FDG-PET/CT imaging. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 16(1), 90-94. Link
  • Ajzensztejn D, Hegde V, Lee SM (2006). Tumour lysis syndrome following treatment with standard second-line docetaxel for non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 24(15), 2389-2391. Link
  • Khanduri S, Gerrard G, Barton R, Mulvenna P, Lee SM (2006). Clinical Trials assessing the optimal management of brain metastases-the state of play. Clinical Oncology 18(10), 744-746. Link
  • Lai CSL, Boshoff C, Falzon M, Lee SM (2006). Complete response to erlotinib therapy in brain metastases from recurrent NSCLC. Thorax 61(1), 91. Link
  • Lee SM (2006). Is EGFR expression important in non-small cell lung cancer? Thorax 61(2), 98-99. Link
  • Ranson R, Middleton MR, Bridgewater J, Lee SM, Dawson M, Jowle D, Halbert G, Waller S, McGrath H, Gumbrell L, McElhinney RS, Donnelly D, McMurray TB, Margison GP (2006). Lomeguatrib, a potent inhibitor of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase: Phase 1 safety, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic trial and evaluation in combination with temozolomide in patients with advanced solid tumours. Clinical Cancer Research 12(5), 1577-1584. Link
  • Rudd RM, Gower NH, Spiro G, Lee SM, Eisen TG, Harper PG, Hatton M, Martin WMC, Rankin EM (2005). Is the tolerance to MIP Chemotherapy different between english and other european populations? Journal of Clinical Oncology 23(25), 6270-6271.
  • Rudd RM, Gower NH, Spiro SG, Eisen TG, Harper PG, Littler JAH, Hatton M, Johnson PWM, Martin WMC, Rankin EM, James LE, Gregory WM, Qian W, Lee SM (2005). Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus mitomycin,ifosfamide, and cisplatin in patients with stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomized study of the London Lung Cancer Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23(1), 142-153. Link
  • Ansari J, Nagabhushan N, Bomanji J, Bacon C, Lee SM (2004). Small cell lung cancer associated with anti-Hu paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy and peripheral nerve microvasculitis: Case report and literature review. Clinical Oncology 16(1), 71-76. Link
  • Mackay HJ, O'Brien M, Hill S, Lee SM, Thatcher N, Smith IE, Dunlop DJ (2003). A phase II study of carboplatin and vinorelbine in patients with poor prognosis small cell lung cancer. Clinical Oncology 15(4), 181-185. Link
  • Bomanji JB, Syed R, Brock CS, Jankowska P, Dogan A, Costa DC, Ell PJ, Lee SM (2002). Challenging cases and diagnostic dilemmas: Pitfalls of positron emission tomography for assessing residual mediastinal mass after chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20(15), 3347-3349. Link
  • Brock CS, Lee SM (2002). Anti-angiogenic strategies and vascular targeting in the treatment of lung cancer. European Respiratory Journal 19(3), 557-570. Link
  • Woll PJ, Thatcher N, Lomax L, Hodgetts J, Lee SM, Burt PA, Stout R, Simms T, Davies R, Pettengell R (2001). Use of hematopoietic progenitors in whole blood to support dose-dense chemotherapy: a randomised phase II trial in small cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 19(3), 712-719. Link
  • Middleton MR, Lee SM, Aranc A, Wood M, Thatcher N, Margison GP (2000). 06-methyguanine formation, repair protein depletion and clinical outcome with a 4 hr schedule of temozolomide in the treatment of advanced melanoma: results of a phase II study. International Journal of Cancer 88(3), 469-473. Link
  • Middleton MR, Lorigan P, Owens J, Ashcroft L, Lee SM, Harper P, Thatcher N (2000). A randomised phase III study comparing dacarbazine, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen with dacarbazine and interferon in advanced melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 82(6), 1158-1162. Link
  • Shamash J, Lee SM, Radford JA, Rohatiner AZS, Chang J, Morgenstern OR, Scarffe JH, Deakin DP, Lister TA (2000). Patterns of relapse and subsequent management following high dose chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic support in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Annals of Oncology 11(6), 715-719. Link
  • Verweij J, Lee SM, Ruka W, Buesa J, Coleman R, van Hoessel R, Seynaeve C, di Paola ED, van Glabbeke M, Tonelli D, Judson IR (2000). Randomised phase II study of docetaxel versus doxorubicin in first- and second-line chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in adults: a study of the european organization for research and treatment of cancer soft tissue and bone sarcoma group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 18(10), 2081-2086. Link
  • Lee SM, Radford JA, Ryder WD, Deakin DP, Morgenstern OR, Scarffe JH, Crowther D (1999). Treatment outcome and prognostic factors for relapse after high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell rescue for patients with poor risk high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplantation 24(3), 271-277. Link
  • Woll P, Judson I, Lee SM, Rodenhuis S, Nielsen OS, Buesa JM, Lorigan PC, Leyvraz S, Hermans C, van Glabbeke M, Verweij J (1999). Temozolomide in adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma group. European Journal of Cancer 35(3), 410-412. Link
  • Jayson GC, Middleton M, Lee SM, Ashcroft L, Thatcher N (1998). A randomized phase II trial of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2-interferon alpha in advanced renal cancer. British Journal of Cancer 78(3), 366-369. Link
  • Lee SM, Radford JA, Dobson L, Huq T, Ryder WDJ, Pettengell R, Morgenstern GR, Scarffe JH, Crowther D (1998). Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) following high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical benefits at no extra cost. British Journal of Cancer 77(8), 1294-1299. Link
  • Middleton MR, Lunn JM, Morris C, Rustin G, Wedge SR, Brampton MH, Lind MJ, Lee SM, Newell DR, Bleehen NM, Newlands ES, Calvert AH, Margison GP, Thatcher N (1998). O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in pretreatment tumour biopsies as a predictor of response to temozolomide in melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 78(9), 1199-1202. Link
  • Thatcher N, Lee SM, Woll PJ, Middleton M, Anderson H, Burt P, Stout R (1998). Dose intensity in small cell lung cancer. Seminars in Oncology 25(2), 12-18. Link
  • Haque K, Cooper DP, van Delft JH, Lee SM, Povey AC (1997). Accurate and sensitive quantitation of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine-3'-monophosphate by 32P-postlabeling and storage-phosphor imaging. Chemical Research in Toxicology 10(6), 660-666. Link
  • Lee SM, Radford JA, Ryder WDJ, Collins CD, Deakin DP, Crowther D (1997). Prognostic factors for disease progression in advanced Hodgkin's disease: an analysis of patients aged under 60 years showing no progression in the first six months after starting primary chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 75(1), 110-115. Link
  • Lee SM, Portmann B, Margison GP (1996). Abnormal intracellular distribution of 06-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in hepatitis B cirrhotic human liver: A potential cofactor in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 24(5), 987-990. Link
  • Lee SM, Reid H, Elder RH, Thatcher N, Margison GP (1996). Inter- and intracellular heterogeneity of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase expression in human brain tumors: possible significance in nitrosourea therapy. Carcinogenesis 17(4), 637-641. Link
  • Margison GP, Rafferty JA, Elder RH, Kelly J, Watson AJ, Willington MA, Lee SM, Hickson I, Fairbaim LJ, Dexter TM, Jelinek J, Stocking C, Baum C, Ostertag W, Eghyazi S, Hansson J, Ringborg U, Donnelly D, McMurry TBH, McCormick J, McElhinney RS (1996). Modulating nitrosourea response in tumors and normal tissue: application to fotemustine. Drugs of Today 32, 51-59.
  • Betticher DC, Lee SM, Morris C, Clemons M, Thatcher N (1995). Dacarbazine and interferon-alpha 2a in advanced malignant melanoma: high response rate and prolongation of response duration occur in different patient subpopulations. Melanoma Research 5(4), 277-282. Link
  • Bleehen NM, Newlands ES, Lee SM, Thatcher N, Selby P, Calvert AH, Rustin GJ, Brampton M, Stevens MFG (1995). Cancer Research Campaign phase II trial of temozolomide in malignant melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 13(4), 910-913. Link
  • Lee SM, Betticher DC, Thatcher N (1995). Melanoma: chemotherapy. British Medical Bulletin 51(3), 609-630. Link
  • Lee SM, Harper P, Luthert P, Hughes RAC (1995). Primary CNS lymphoma in association with IgM kappa-paraproteinaemia and peripheral polyneuropathy. European Neurology 35(4), 237-239. Link
  • Lorrigan P, Lee SM, Betticher D, Woodhead M, Weir D, Hanley S, Hardy C, Thatcher N (1995). Chemotherapy with vincristine/ifosphamide/carboplatin/etoposide in small cell lung cancer. Semin Oncol 22(3), 32-41. Link
  • Thatcher N, Ranson M, Lee SM, Niven R, Anderson H (1995). Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Annals of Oncology 6, 83-94. Link
  • Bleehen NM, Calvert AH, Lee SM, Harper P, Kaye SB, Judson I, Brampton M (1994). Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) phase II trial of CB 10-277 given by 24 hour infusion for malignant melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 70(4), 775-777. Link
  • Fentiman IS, Howell A, Hamed H, Lee SM, Ranson M, Walls J, Chaudary MA, Ash CM, Gregory WM, Sellwood RA, Rubens RD (1994). A controlled trial of adjuvant tamoxifen, with or without prednisolone, in postmenopausal women with operable breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer 70(4), 729-731. Link
  • Lee SM, Margison GP, Thatcher N,O'Connor PJ, Cooper DP (1994). Formation and loss of 06-methyldeoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following sequential DTIC and fotemustine chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 69(5), 853-857. Link
  • Lee SM,O'Connor PJ, Thatcher N, Crowther D, Margison GP, Cooper DP (1994). Relationships between the formation of 06-methyldeoxyguanosine by 1-p-carboxyl-3,3-dimethylphenyltriazene in DNA and 06-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in human peripheral leukocytes. Cancer Research 54(15), 4072-4076. Link
  • Lee SM, Thatcher N, Crowther D, Margison GP (1994). Inactivation of human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by temozolomide. British Journal of Cancer 69(3), 452-456. Link
  • Gerard B, Aamdal S, Lee SM, Leyvraz S, Lucas C,D'Incalci M, Bizzari JP (1993). Activity and unexpected lung toxicity of the sequential administration of two alkylating agents-dacarbazine and fotemustine-in patients with melanoma. European Journal of Cancer 29A(5), 711-719. Link
  • Lee SM, Harris M, Rennison J, McGown A, Bromley M, Elder RH, Rafferty JA, Crowther D, Margison GP (1993). Expression of 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in situ in ovarian and Hodgkin's Tumours. European Journal of Cancer 29A(9), 1306-1312. Link
  • Lee SM, Margison GP, Woodcock AA, Thatcher N (1993). Sequential administration of varying doses of dacarbazine and fotemustine in advanced malignant melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 67(6), 1356-1360. Link
  • Lee SM, Thatcher N, Dougal M, Margison, GP (1993). Dosage and cycle effects of dacarbazine (DTIC) and fotemustine on 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. British Journal of Cancer 67(2), 216-221. Link
  • Lee SM, Crowther D, Scarffe JH, Dougal M, Elder RH, Rafferty JA, Margison GP (1992). Cyclophosphamide decreases 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in peripheral lymphocytes of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. British Journal of Cancer 66(2), 331-336. Link
  • Lee SM, Rafferty JA, Elder RH, Fan CY, Bromley M, Harris M, Thatcher N, Potter PM, Altermatt HJ, Perinat-Frey T, Cemy T,O'Connor PJ, Margison GP (1992). Immunohistological examination of the inter- and intracellular distribution of 06-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in human liver and melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 66(2), 355-360. Link
  • Lee SM, Thatcher N, Crowther D, Margison GP (1992). In vivo depletion of 06-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in lymphocytes and melanoma of patients treated with CB10-277, a new DTIC analogue. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 31(3), 240-246. Link
  • Lee SM, Thatcher N, Margison GP (1991). 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase depletion and regeneration in human peripheral lymphocytes following dacarbazine and fotemustine. Cancer Research 51(2), 619-623. Link
  • Lee SM, Forbes A, Williams R (1988). Metastatic islet cell tumour with clinical manifestations of insulin and glucagon excess - successful treatment by hepatic artery embolization and chemotherapy. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 14(3), 265-268. Link
  • Lee SM, O'Brien CJ, Williams R, Whitaker S, Gould SR (1986). Subacute hepatic necrosis induced by piroxicam. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 293(6546), 540-541. Link

Book chapter

  • Raja F, Lee SM (2012). Chemotherapy and Biological Agents. Lung Cancer: A multidisciplinary approach. Edited by Leary A. Wiley-Blackwell, 1st edition, 49-64
  • Scatchard K, Lee SM. (2010). Neurotoxicity of chemotherapy. in Neuro-Oncology: Blue Books of Neurology Series. Edited by Rees JH, Wen PY. Elsevier, 1st edition, 352-371
  • Kelly CMA, Lee SM, Steele JP (2005). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Chapter 7 in Andrew Miles (ed.) Key Advances in Lung Cancer. Series edited by Muers M, O'Byrne K, Wells F, Miles A. Aesculapius Medical Press, 3rd edition, 67-74.
  • O'Connor PJ, Lee SM, Cooper DP, Thatcher N, Rafferty J, Fan CY, Zaidi SNH & Margison GP (1993). Heterogeneity in the mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy related to DNA damage and repair. Edited by D'IncalciM, Mantovani,A, Garattini S. Heterogeneity of Cancer Cells. New York: Raven Press, 1st edition, 89-103.
  • Lee, A.J.X., Lee, S.M., (2022). Small Cell Lung Cancer. In: Janes, S.M. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, vol. 4. Elsevier, Academic Press, pp. 950–959. ISBN: 9780081027233. Link